| 1999年6月大学英语六级考试试题及参考答案 |
|Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) |
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause .During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C),and D),anddecide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Example: You will hear:
You will read: A) 2 hours. B) 3 hours.
C) 4 hours. D) 5 hours.
From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o'clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) “5 hours” is the correct answer. You should choose ［D］ on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center.
Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D]
1.A) The man attended the concert, but didn't like it.
B) The man was sorry to miss the football game.
C) The man is more interested in football than in classical music.
D) The man was sorry that he didn't attend the concert.
2.A) Singing loudly. B) Listening to music.
C) Studying. D) Talking on the phone.
3.A) She can't receive any calls. B) She can't make any calls.
C) She can do nothing with the phone. D) She can't repair the phone.
4.A) Tom is very responsible. B) Tom's words aren't reliable.
C) What Tom said is true. D) Tom is not humorous at all.
5.A) How to use a camera. B) How to use a washer.
C) How to use a keyboard. D) How to use a tape recorder.
6.A) They should put the meeting to an end.
B) They should hold another meeting to discuss the matter.
C) She would like to discuss another item.
D) She wants to discuss the issue again later.
7.A) He believes the Browns have done a sensible thing.
B) He doesn't think the Browns should move to another place.
C) He doesn't think the Browns' investment is a wise move.
D) He believes it is better for the Browns to invest later.
8.A) He may convert it and use it as a restaurant.
B) he may pull it down and build a new restaurant.
C) He may rent it out for use as a restaurant.
D) He may sell it to the owner of a restaurant.
9.A) She doesn't like the way the professor lectures.
B) She's having a hard time following the professor's lectures.
C) She is not interested in course.
D) She's having difficulty with the heavy reading assignments.
10.A) He never keeps his promises.
B) He is crazy about parties.
C) He has changed his mind.
D) He is not sociable.
Section B Compound Dictation
注意:听力理解的B节(Section B)为复合式听写(Compound Dictation)，题目在卷二上。现在请取出试卷二。
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage:
We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too. In one experiment, for example, behavioral immunologist (免疫学家)Mark Laudenslger, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric shocks to 24 rats. Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could mot. The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock. Laudenslager found that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity. What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.
Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School
of Medicine, has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don't develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats. But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control. Such findings reinforce psychologists' suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression.
One of the most startling examples of how the mind can alter the immune response was discovered by chance. In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of Rochester School of Medicine conditioned (使形成条件反射)mice to avoid saccharin (糖精)by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting them with a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused stomach upsets. Associating the saccharin with the stomach pains, the mice quickly learned to avoid the sweetener. In order to extinguish this dislike for the sweetener, Ader reexposed the animals to saccharin, this time without the drug, and was astonished to find that those mice that had received the highest amounts of sweetener during their earlier conditioning died. He could only speculate that he had so successfully conditioned the rats that saccharin alone now served to weaken their immune systems enough to kill them.
11.Laudenslager's experiment showed that the immune system of those rats who
could turn off the electricity ______.
A) was strengthened B) was not affected
C) was altered D) was weakened
12.According to the passage, the experience of helplessness causes rats to ______.
A) try to control unpleasant stimuli
B) turn off the electricity
C) behave passively in controllable situations
D) become abnormally suspicious
13.The reason why the mice in Ader's experiment avoided saccharin was that ______ .
A) they disliked its taste
B) it affected their immune systems
C) it led to stomach pains
D) they associated it with stomachaches
14.The passage tells us that the most probable reason for the death of the mice in
Ader's experiment was that ______ .
A) they had been weakened psychologically by the saccharin
B) the sweetener was poisonous to them
C) their immune systems had been altered by the mind
D) they had taken too much sweetener during earlier conditioning
15.It can be concluded from the passage that the immune systems of animals ______.
A) can be weakened by conditioning
B) can be suppressed by drug injections
C) can be affected by frequent doses of saccharin
D) can be altered by electric shocks
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:
The destruction of our natural resources and contamination of our food supply continue occur, largely because of the extreme difficulty in affixing(把…固定)legal responsibility on those who continue to treat our environment with reckless abandon(放任).Attempts to prevent pollution by legislation, economic in-centives and friendly persuasion have been net by lawsuits, personal and industrial denial and long delays-not only in accepting responsibility, but more importantly, in doing something about it.
It seems that only when government decides it can afford tax incentives or production sacrifices is there any initiative for change. Where is industry's and our recognition that protecting mankind's great treasure is the single most important responsibility? If ever there will be time for environmental health professionals to come to the frontlines and provide leadership to solve environmental problems, that time is now.
We are being asked, and, in fact ,the public is demanding that we take positive action. It is our responsibility as professionals in environmental health to make the difference. Yes, the ecologists, the environmental activists and the conservationists serve to communicate, stimulate thinking and promote behavioral change. However, it is those of us who are paid to make the decisions to develop, improve and enforce environmental standards, I submit, who must lead the charge.
We must recognize that environmental health issues do not stop at city limits, county lines, state or even federal boundaries. We can no longer afford to be tunnel - visioned in our approach. We must visualize issues from every perspective to make the objective decisions. We must express our views clearly to prevent media distortion and public confusion.
I believe we have a three - part mission for the present. First, we must continue to press for improvements in the quality of life that people can make for themselves. Second, we must investigate and understand the link between environment and health. Third, we must be able to communicate technical information in a form that citizens can understand. If we can accomplish these three goals in this decade, maybe we can finally stop environmental degradation, and not merely hold it back. We will then be able to spend pollution dollars truly on prevention rather than on bandages.
16.We can infer from the first two paragraphs that the industrialists disregard environmental
protection chiefly because ______.
A) they are unaware of the consequences of what they are doing
B) they are reluctant to sacrifice their own economic interests
C) time has not yet come for them to put due emphasis on it
D) it is difficult for them to take effective measures
17.The main task now facing ecologists, environmental activists and conservationists
A) to prevent pollution by legislation, economic incentives and persuasion
B) to arouse public awareness of the importance of environmental protection
C) to take radical measures to control environmental pollution
D) to improve the quality of life by enforcing environmental standards
18. The word “tunnel - visioned” (Line 2, Para.4) most probably means“______ ”.
A) narrow - minded B) blind to the facts
C) short - sighted D) able to see only one aspect
19.Which of the following, according to the author, should play the leading role in the
solution of environmental problems?
A) Legislation and government intervention.
B) The industry's understanding and support.
C) The efforts of environmental health professionals.
D) The cooperation of ecologists, environmental activists and conservationists.
20. Which of the following is true according to the last paragraph?
A) Efforts should be exerted on pollution prevention instead of on remedial
B) More money should be spent in order to stop pollution.
C) Ordinary citizens have no access to technical information on pollution.
D) Environmental degradation will be stopped by the end of this decade.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:
British universities, groaning under the burden of a huge increase in student numbers, are warning that the tradition of a free education is at risk.The universities have threatened to impose an admission fee on students to plug a gap in revenue if the government does not act to improve their finances and scrap some public spending cutbacks.
The government responded to the universities' threat by setting up the most fundamemtal review of higher education for a generation, under a non - party troubleshooter(调停人)，Sir Ron Dearing.
One in three school - leavers enters higher education, five times the number
when the last review took place thirty years ago.
Everyone agrees a system that is feeling the strain after rapid expansion needs a lot more money - but there is little hope of getting it from the taxpayer and not much scope for attracting more finance from business.
Most colleges believe students should contribute to tuition costs ,something that is common elsewhere in the world but would mark a revolutionary change in Britain. Universities want the government to introduce a loan scheme for tuition fees and have suspended their own threatened action for now. They await Dearing's advice, hoping it will not be too late - some are already reported to be in financial difficulty.
As the century nears its end, the whole concept of what a university should be is under the microscope. Experts ponder how much they can use computers instead of classrooms, talk of the need for lifelong learning and refer to students as “consumers.”
The Confederation(联盟)of British Industry, the key employers' organization, wants even more expansion in higher education to help fight competition on world markets from booming Asian economies. But the government has doubts about more expansion. The Times newspaper egress, complaining that quality has suffered as student numbers soared, with close tutorial supervision giving way to “mass production methods more typical of European universities.”
21. The chief concern of British universities is ______ .
A) how to tackle their present financial difficulty
B) how to expand the enrollment to meet the needs of enterprises
C) how to improve their educational technology
D) how to put an end to the current tendency of quality deterioration
22. We can learn from the passage that in Britain ______ .
A) the government pays dearly for its financial policy
B) universities are mainly funded by businesses
C) higher education is provided free of charge
D) students are ready to accept loan schemes for tuition
23. What was the percentage of high school graduates admitted to universities
in Britain thirty years ago?
A) 20% or so. B) About 15%.
C) Above 30%. D) Below 10%.
24. It can be inferred from the passage that _______ .
A) the British government will be forced to increase its spending on higher education
B) British employers demand an expansion in enrollment at the expense of quality
C) the best way out for British universities is to follow their European counterparts
D) British students will probably have to pay for their higher education in the near future
25. Which of the following is the viewpoint of the Times newspaper?
A) Expansion in enrollment is bound to affect the quality of British higher education.
B) British universities should expand their enrollment to meet the needs of industry.
C) European universities can better meet the needs of the modern world.
D) British universities should help fight competition on world markets.
Question 26 to 30are based on the following passage:
There's simple premise behind what Larry Myers does for a living: If you can smell it, you can find it.
Myers is the founder of Aubum University's Institute for Biological Detection Systems, the main task of which is to chase the ultimate in detection devices - an artificial nose.
For now, the subject of their research is little more than a stack of gleaming chips tucked away in a laboratory drawer. But soon, such a tool could be hanging from the belts of police, arson(纵火)investigators and food - safety inspectors.
The technology that they are working in would suggest quite reasonably that, within three to five years, we'll have some workable sensors ready to use. Such devices might find wide use in places that attract terrorists. Police could detect drugs, bodies and bombs hidden in cars, while food inspectors could easily test food and water for contamination.
The implications for revolutionary advances in public safety and the food industry are astonishing. But so, too ,are the possibilities for abuse; Such machines could determine whether a woman is ovulating(排卵),without a physical exam - or even her knowledge.
One of the traditional protectors of American liberty is that is has been impossible to search everyone. That's getting not to be the case.
Artificial biosensors created at Auburn work totally differently from anything ever seen before. Aroma Scan, for example, is a desktop machine based on a bank of chips sensitive to specific chemicals that evaporate into the air. As air is sucked into the machine, chemicals pass over the sensor surfaces and produce changes in the electrical current flowing through them. Those current changes are logged into a computer that sorts out odors based on their electrical signatures.
Myers says they expect to load a single fingernail - size chip with thousands of odor receptors(感受器)， enough to create a sensor that's nearly as sensitive as a dog's nose.
26. Which of the following is within the capacity of the artificial nose being
A) Performing physical examinations.
B) Locating places which attract terrorists.
C) Detecting drugs and water contamination.
D) Monitoring food processing.
27.A potential problem which might be caused by the use of an artificial nose is _______ .
A) negligence of public safety B) an abuse of personal freedom
C) a hazard to physical health D) a threat to individual privacy
28.The word “logged” (Line 5, Para. 7)most probably means“______ ”.
A) preset B) entered
C) processed D) simulated
29. To produce artificial noses for practical use, it is essential ______ .
A) to develop microchips with thousands of odor receptors
B) to invent chips sensitive to various chemicals
C) to design a computer program to sort out smells
D) to find chemicals that can alter the electrical current passing through
30. The author's attitude towards Larry Myers' works is ______ .
A) cautious B) approving C) suspicious D) overenthusiastic
Part Ⅲ Vocabulary (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
31. When people are asked what kind of housing they need or want, the question ______ a
variety of answers.
A) defies B) magnifies c) mediates D) evokes
32. If you want to set up a company, you must ______ with the regulations laid down by the
A) comply B) adhere C) confirm D) accord
33. Although there are occasional outbreaks of gunfire, we can report that the
rebellion has in the main been ______ .
A) canceled B) destroyed C) suppressed D) restrained
34. Since the two countries couldn't ______ their differences, they decided to stop their
A) rectify B) oblige C) reconcile D) obscure
35. The presidential candidate ______ his position by winning several primary elections.
A) enforced B) enriched C) intensified D) consolidated
36. The fuel of the continental missile is supposed to be _______ by this device.
A) ignited B) lighted C) fired D) inspired
37. Mike just discovered that his passport had _______ three months ago.
A) abolished B) expired C) amended D) constrained
38. Frankly speaking, your article is very good except for some ______ mistakes in grammar.
A) obscure B) glaring C) trivial D) rare
39. There was once an _______ idea that the earth was flat and motionless.
A) absurd B) intrinsic C) eternal D) offensive
40. Certain species disappeared or became ______ as new forms arose that were better adapted
to the Earth's changing environment.
A) feeble B) extinct C) massive D) extinguished
41. His _______ directions confused us; we did not know which of the two roads to take.
A) ambiguous B) complicated C) arbitrary D) intricate
42. Franklin D. Roosevelt argued that the depression stemmed from the American
economy's ______ flaws.
A) underlining B) vulnerable C) vulgar D) underlying
43. Some studies confirmed that this kind of eye disease was ______ in tropical countries.
A) prospective B) prevalent C) provocative D) perpetual
44. I am afraid that you have to alter your ______ views in light of the tragic news that has
A) indifferent B) distressing C) optimistic D) pessimistic
45. Although he has had no formal education, he is one of the ______ businessmen in the
A) shrewdest B) sternest C) nastiest D) alertest
46. Stop shouting! I can't hear the football ______ .
A) judgment B) interpretation C) commentary D) explanation
47. The cultures of China and Japan hare shared many features, but each has
used them according to its national______ .
A) engagement B) destiny C) capacity D) temperament
48. Every member of society has to make a ______ to struggle for the freedom of the country.
A) pledge B) warranty C) resolve D) guarantee
49. I was deeply impressed by the hostess' and enjoyed the dinner party very much.
A) hostility B) indignation C) hospitality D) humanity
50. David tends to feel useless and unwanted in a society that gives so much ______ to
those who compete well.
A) prestige B) regime C) superiority D) legislation
51. As you have seen, the values of a nation's currency is a ______ of its economy.
A) reaction B) refection C) response D) revelation
52. In the Spring Export Commodities Fair the _______ of fine china attracted much attention
of customers from all over the world.
A) succession B) array C) string D) procession
53. We should make a clear_______ between the two scientific terms for the purpose of our
A) separation B) discrimination C) deviation D) distinction
54. The terrorists might have planted a bomb on a plane in Athens, set to______ when it
arrived in New York.
A) go off B) get off C) come off D) carry off
55. We should be able to do the job for you quickly, _______ you give us all the necessary
A) in case B) provided that C) or else D) as if
56. The younger person's attraction to stereos cannot be explained only ______ familiarity
A) in quest of B) by means of C) in terms of D) by virtue of
57. Attempts to persuade her to stay after she felt insulted were______ .
A) in no way B) on the contrary C) at a loss D) of no avail
58. By signing the lease we made a _______ to pay a rent of $ 150 a week.
A) conception B) commission C) commitment D) confinement
59. To prevent flooding in winter the water flowing from the dam is constantly ______ by a
A) graded B) managed C) conducted D) monitored
60. Many people think of deserts as ______ regions, but numerous species of plants and
animals have adapted to life there.
A) virgin B) barren C) void D) wretched
Part Ⅳ Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. The mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Most people who travel long distances complain
of jetlag(喷气飞行时差反应).Jetlag makes business
travelers less productive and more prone 61 making 61. A) for C)to B)from D) of
mistakes. It is actually caused by 62 of your 62. A) rupture B) corruption
C) eruption D) disruption
“body clock”- a small cluster of brain cells that
controls the timing of biological 63 .The body clock 63. A) actions B) functions
C) reflection D) behavior
is designed for a 64 rhythm of daylight and darkness, 64. A) regular B) formal
C) continual D) circular
so that it is thrown out of balance when it 65 daylight 65. A) retains B) encounters
C) possesses D) experiences
and darkness at the“wrong”times in a new time zone.
The 66 of jetlag often persist for days 66. A) diseases B) symptoms
C) signs D) defects
67 the internal body clock slowly adjusts to the new 67. A) while B) whereas
C) if D) although
time zone Now a new anti - jetlag system is 68 that 68. A) adaptable B) approachable
C) available D) agreeable
is based on proven 69 pioneering scientific research. 69. A) broad B) inclusive
C) tentative D) extensive
Dr. Martin Moore-Ede has 70 a practical strategy to 70. A) devised B) recognized
C) scrutinized D) visualized
adjust the body clock much sooner to the new time zone
71 controlled exposure to bright light, The time zone 71. A) at B) through
C) in D) as
shift is easy to accomplish and eliminates 72 of the 72. A) most B) least
C) little D) more
discomfort of jetlag. A successful time zone shift
depends on knowing the exact time to either 73 or 73. A) attain B) shed
C) retrieve D) seek
avoid bright light. Exposure to light at the wrong
time can actually make jetlag worse. The proper schedule
74 light exposure depends a great deal on 74. A)on B)with C)for D) in
75 travel plans. Data on a specific flight itinerary 75. A) unique B) specific
C) complicated D)peculiar
(旅行路线)and the individual's sleep 76 are used 76. A) norm B) mode
C) pattern D) style
to produce a Trip Guide with 77 on exactly when to be 77. A) directories B) instructions
C) specifications D) commentaries
exposed to bright light. When the Trip Guide calls
78 bright light you should spend time outdoors if 78. A)off B)on C)for D) up
possible. If it is dark out - side, or the weather
is bad, 79 you are on an aeroplane, you can use a 79. A)or B)and C) but D) while
special light device to provide the necessary
light 80 for a range of activities such as reading, 80. A) agitation B)spur
C) acceleration D) stimulus
watching TV or working.
试 卷 二
PartV Section B Compound Dictation
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage tree times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. Then listen to the passage again. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from S1 to S7 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered S8 to S10 you are required to fill in missing information. You can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
President Clinton later today joins (S1)______ presidents Ford, Carter and Bush at“the president's summit for America's future”(S2)______ at recruiting one million volunteer tutors to provide afterschool, weekend and summer reading help for up to three million children. Mr. Clinton will ask Congress this coming week for nearly three (S3) ______ dollars to fund a five-year program called “America Reads”.
The program would fund the (S4)______ efforts of 20 thousand reading (S5)______ and it would also give (S6)______ to help parents help children read by the third grade, or about age eight. During his Saturday radio (S7)______ , the president explained why the program is important. “We need ‘America Reads’ and we need it now. Studies show that if the fourth-graders fail to read well, (S8)________________________________. But, 40 percent of them still can't read at a basic level.”
Volunteer tutors, who provide community service in exchange for college funding, are being used in literacy and tutoring programs.(S9) ________________________________________________________________________ .
The president says many of the Philadelphia summit's corporate sponsors will recruit tutors.(S10) ______________________________________________________ .
PartVI Writing (30 minutes)
Directions:For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic:
Reading Selectively Or Extensively? You should write at least 120 words, and base you composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:
1.W: It's a pity you missed the concert yesterday evening. It was wonderful!
M: I didn't want to miss the football game. Well, I'm not a classical music fan anyway.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
2.W: Hey! If you can't enjoy that at a sensible volume, please use earphones. I'm trying study.
M: Oh! I'm sorry. I didn't realize it was bothering you.
Q: What is the man probably doing?
3:M: Can I help you, Ms?
W: Yes, I bought this telephone last week, and it works all right with out-going calls, but
it doesn't ring for the incoming ones.
Q: What's the problem with the woman's telephone?
4.W: I thought Tom said he got A's in all his tests.
M: Mary, you should know better than to take Tom's words too seriously.
Q: What does the man imply?
5.W: Can you show me how to use this, John?
M: It is fully automatic. All you have to do is focus on the scene and press the button here.
Q: What are they talking about?
6.M: I think we should move on to the next item.
W: Ok. But I'd like to take this matter up again at the end of the meeting.
Q: What does the woman imply?
7.W: You know, the Browns have invested all their money in stocks.
M: They may think that's a wise move, but that's the last thing I'd do.
Q: What's the man's opinion about the Browns' investment?
8.M: What is Mr. Peterson going to do with his old house on London Road? Rent it or sell it?
W: I heard he is thinking of turning it into a restaurant, which isn't a bad idea, because
it's still a solid building.
Q: What will Mr. Peterson do with his old house?
9.M: How do you like Professor Bachman's course on the History of Philosophy? He is a
distinguished scholar on that subject.
W: He is a great teacher. But I'm having a hard time with the reading list. I feel I can't
ever finish it.
Q: What problem does the woman have with the course?
10.W: Robert wants to know if he can go with us to the party.
M: That's odd. This morning he said he wanted to go by himself.
Q: What do we learn about Robert?
Part I Listening Comprehension
1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.A 6.D 7.C 8.A 9.D 10.C
S1. former S2. aimed S3. billion S4. coordination S5. specialists S6. grants
S8. They are likely to drop off school, and less likely to succeed in life.
S9. The programs, initiated by President Clinton has come on the criticism by Congress.
S10. Dozen of colleges and Universities are prepare to sent thousands of their students in
support of the Program.
Part II Reading Comprehension
11. B 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. A 16. B 17. B 18. D 19. C 20. C
21. A 22. C 23. D 24. D 25. A 26. C 27. D 28. B 29. A 30. B
Part III Vocabulary
31. D 32. A 33. C 34. C 35. D 36. A 37. B 38. C 39. A 40.B
41. A 42. D 43. B 44. C 45. A 46. C 47. D 48. A 49. C 50. A
51. B 52. B 53. D 54. A 55. B 56. C 57. D 58. C 59. D 60. B
Part IV Cloze
61.C 62.D 63.B 64.A 65.B 66.D 67.A 68.C 69.D 70.A
71.B 72.A 73.D 74.C 75.B 76.C 77.B 78.C 79.A 80.D
Part V Writing
Reading electively or Extensively?
Knowledge is power. Everybody knows it. the main way for us students to gain knowledge is from the books. So some students argue that we should read extensively in order to know something about everything, thus broadening our knowledge and enriching experience.
As books are of different kinds and have different content, so some students argue that we should read selectively, that is to read those book which are of benefits both to our mind and body and dismiss those which are of no good to us.
As far as I am concerned, I think we should selectively do extensive reading. Knowledge is limitless while life is short. So we should make full use of our time to do the most effective reading and make the greatest to our motherland.