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2000年6月大学英语四级考试试题及参考答案
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2000年6月大学英语四级考试试题

附:听力原文及参考答案

Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)
Section A
Diretions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Example: You will hear:
You will read: A) At the office. B) In the waiting room.
C) At the airport. D) In a restaurant.
From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they had
to finish in the evening. This is most likely to have taken place at the office.
Therefore, A) "At the office" is the best answer. You should choose [A] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.
Sample Answer [ A ] [B] [C] [D]

1.A) She is not interested in the article.
B) She has given the man much trouble.
C) She would like to have a copy of the article.
D) She doesn't want to take the trouble to read the article.
2.A)He saw the big tower he visited on TV.
B) He has visited the TV tower twice.
C) He has visited the TV tower once.
D) He will visit the TV tower in June.
3.A) The woman has trouble getting along with the professor.
B) The woman regrets having taken up much of the professor's time.
C) The woman knows the professor has been busy.
D) The woman knows the professor has run into trouble.
4.A) He doesn't enjoy business trips as much as he used to.
B) He doesn't think he is capable of doing the job.
C) He thinks the pay is too low to support his family.
D) He wants to spend more time with his family.
5 A)The man thought the essay was easy.
B) They both had a hard time writing the essay.
C) The woman thought the essay was easy.
D) Neigther of them has finished the assignment yet.
6.A) In the park. B) Between two buildings.
C) In his apartment. D) Under a huge tree.
7.A) It's awfully dull. B) It's really exciting.
C) It's very exhausting. D) It's quite challenging.
8.A) A movie. B) A lecture. C) A play. D) A speech.
9.A) The weather is mild compared to the past years.
B) They are having the coldest winter ever.
C) The weather will soon get warmer.
D) The weather may get even colder.
10.A) A mystery story.
B) The hiring of a shop assistant.
C) The search for a reliable witness.
D) An unsolved case of robbery.
Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each
passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
questions 11 to 14 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11.A) They want to change the way English is taught.
B) They learn English to find wella2paid jobs.
C) They want to have an upa2to date knowledge of English.
D) They know clearly what they want to learn.
12.A) Professionals.
B) College students.
C) Beginners.
D) Intermediate learners.
13.A) Courses for doctors.
B) Courses for businessmen.
C) Courses for reporters.
D) Courses for lawyers.
14.A) Three groups of learners.
B) The importance of business English.
C) English for Specific Purposes.
D) Features of English for different purposes.
Passage Two
Questions 15 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard.
15.A) To show off their wealth.
B) To feel good.
C) To regain their memory.
D) To be different from others.
16.A) To help solve their psychological problems.
B) To play games with them.
C) To send them to the hospital.
D) To make them aware of its harmfulness.
17.A) They need care and affection.
B) They are fond of rounda2thea2world trips.
C) They are mostly from broken families.
D) They are likely to commit crimes.
Passage Three
Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
18.A) Because it was too heavy.
B) Because it did not bend easily.
C) Because it did not shoot far.
D) Because its string was short.
19.A) It went out of use 300 years ago.
B) It was invented after the shortbow
C) It was discovered before fire and the wheel.
D) It's still in use today.
20.A) They are accurate and easy to pull.
B) Their shooting range is 40 yards.
C) They are usually used indoors.
D) They took 100 years to develop.

Part II Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the One answer that best completes the sentence. then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
21. As we can no longer wait for the delivery of our order, we have to _______it.
A) postpone B) refuse C) delay D) cancel
22. these books, which you can get at any bookshop, will give you _______ you need.
A) all the information B) all the informations
C) all of information D) all of the informations
23. Not until the game had begun_______ at the sports ground.
A) had he arrived B) would he have arrived
C) did he arrive D) should he have arrived
24. Young people are not _______ to stand and look at works of art; they want art they
can participate in.
A) conservative B) content C) confident D) generous
25. Most broadcasters maintain that TV has been unfairly criticized and argue that the
power of the medium is _______.
A) granted B) implied C) exaggerated D) remedied
26. These surveys indicate that many crimes go _______ by the police, mainly because
not all victims report them.
A) unrecorded B) to be unrecorded C) unrecording D) to have been unrecorded
27. I have no objection _______ your story again.
A) to hear B) to hearing C) to having heard D) to have heard
28. The clothes a person wears may express his _______ or social position.
A) curiosity B) status C) determination D) significance
29. By law, when one makes a large purchase, he should have _______ opportunity to
change his mind.
A) accurate B) urgent C) excessive D) advertising
30. You will see this product _______ wherever you go.
A) to be advertised B) advertised C) advertise D) advertising
31. The early pioneers had to _______ many hardships to settle on the new land.
A) go along with B) go back on C) go through D) go into
32. The suggestion that the mayor _______ they prizes was accepted by everyone.
A) would present B) present C) presents D) ought to present
33. Beer is the most popular drink among male drinkers, _______ overall consumption is
significantly higher than that of women.
A) whose B) which C) that D) what
34. Peter, who had been driving all day, suggested _______ at the next town.
A) to stop B) stopping C) stop D) having stopped
35. I didn't know the word. I had to _______ a dictionary.
A) look out B) make out C) refer to D) go over
36. The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _______ his arguments in favour
of the new theory.
A) to be based on B) to base on C) which to base on D) on which to base
37. There are signs _______ restaurants are becoming more popular with families.
A) that B) which C) in which D) whose
38. I think I was at school, _______ I was staying with a friend doring the vacation
when I heard the news.
A) or else B) and then C) or so D) even so
39. It is said that the math teacher seems _______ towards bright students.
A) partial B) beneficial C) preferable D) liable
40. In order to show his boss what a careful worker he was, he took _______ trouble
over the figures.
A) extensive B) spare C) extra D) supreme
41. --"May I speak to your manager Mr. Williams at five o'clock tonight?"
--"I'm sorry. M. Williams _______ to a conference long before then."
A) will have gone B) had gone C) would have gone D) has gone
42. You _______ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.
A) shouldn't follow B) mustn't follow
C) couldn't have been following D) shouldn't have been following
43. The growth of parta2time and flexible working patterns, and of training and retr-
aining schemes, _______ more women to take advantage of employment opportunities.
A) have allowed B) allow C) allowing D) allows
44. Everybody _______ in the hall where they were welcomed by the secretary.
A) assembled B) accumulated C) piled D) joined
45. Putting in a new window will _______ cutting away part of the roof.
A) include B) involve C) contain D) comprise
46. Living in the western part of the country has its problems, _______ obtaining
fresh water is not the least.
A) with which B) for which C) of which D) which
47. In the _______ of the project not being a success, the investors stand to lose up
to $30 million.
A) face B) time C) event D) course
48. The manager would rather his daughter _______ in the same office.
A) had not worked B) not to work C) does not work D) did not work
49. _______, he does get annoyed with her sometimes.
A) Although much he likes her B) Much although he likes her
C) As he likes her much D) Much as he likes her
50. The British constitution is _______ a large extent a product of the historical
events described above.
A) within B) to C) by D) at

PartIII Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some
questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage:
Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the
disputed refereeing (裁判) decisions that denied victory to their team. A resear
cher was appointed to study the performance of some top referees.
The researcher organized an experimental tournament (锦标赛) involving four youth teams. Each match lasted an hour, divided into three periods of 20 minutes during which different referees were in charge.
Observers noted down the referees' errors, of which there were 61 over the tourn
ament. Converted to a standard match of 90 minutes, each referee made almost 23
mistakes, a remarkably high number.
The researcher then studied the videotapes to analyse the matches in detail. Sur
prisingly, he found that errors were more likely when the referees were close to the incident. When the officials got it right, they were, on average, 17 meters away from the action. The average distance in the case of errors was 12 meters.The research shows the optimum (最佳的) distance is about 20 meters.
There also seemed to be an optimum speed. Correct decisions came when the referees were moving at a speed of about 2 meters per second. The average speed for errors was 4 meters per second.
If FIFA, football's international ruling body, wants to improve the standard of
refereeing at the next World Cup, it should encourage referees to keep their eyes on the action from a distance, rather than rushing to keep up with the ball,the researcher argues.
He also says that FIFA's insistence that referees should retire at age 45 may be
misguided. If keeping up with the action is not so important, their physical condition is less critical.

51. The experiment conducted by the researcher was meant to _______.
A) review the decisions of referees at the 1998 World Cup
B) analyse the causes of errors made by football referees
C) set a standard for football refereeing
52. The number of refereeing errors in the experimental matches was _______.
A) slightly above average B) higher than in the 1998 World Cup
C) quite unexpected D) as high as in a standard match
53. The findings of the experiment show that _______.
A) errors are more likely when a referee keeps close to the ball
B) the farther the referee is from the incident, the fewer the errors
C) the more slowly the referee runs, the more likely will errors occur
D) errors are less likely when a referee stays in one spot
54. The word "officials" (Line 2, Para. 4) most probably refers to _______.
A) the researchers involved in the experiment
B) the inspectors of the football tournament
C) the referees of the football tournament
D) the observers at the site of the experiment
55. What is one of the possible conclusions of the experiment?
A) The ideal retirement age for an experienced football referee is 45.
B) Age should not be the chief consideration in choosing a football referee.
C) A football referee should be as young and energetic as possible.
D)An experienced football referee can do well even when in poor physical condition.
Passage Two
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage:
While still in its early stages, welfare reform has already been judged a great
success in many states ?a at least in getting people off welfare. It's estimated
that more than 2 million people have left the rolls since 1994.
In the past four years, welfare rolls in Athens County have been eut in half. But 70 percent of the people who left in the past two years took jobs that paid less than $6 an hour. The result: The Athens County poverty rate still remains at more than 30 percent--twice the national average.
For advocates (代言人)for the poor, that's an indication much more needs to be done.
"More people are getting jobs, but it's not making their lives any better," says Kathy Lairn,a policy analyst at the Center on Budget and Policy Pricorities in Washington.
A center analysis of US Census data nationwide found that between 1995 and 1996,
a greater percentage of single, femalea2headed households were earning money on their own, but that average income for these households actually went down.
but for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as
well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory.
"Welfare was a poison. It was a toxin (毒素) that was poisoning the family," says Robert Rector, a welfarea2reform policy analyst. "The reform is changing the moral climate in lowa2income communities. It's beginning to rebuild the work ethic (道德观),which is much more important."
Mr. Rector and others argued that once "the habit of dependency is cracked," then the country can make other policy changes aimed at improving living standards.

56. From the passage, it can be seen that the author _______.
A) believes the reform has reduced the government's burden
B) insists that welfare reform is doing little good for the poor
C) is overenthusiastic about the success of welfare reform
D) considers welfare reform to be fundamentally successful
57. Why aren't people enjoying better lives when they have jobs?
A) Because many families are divorced.
B) Because government aid is now rare.
C) Because their wages are low.
D) Because the cost of living is rising.
58. What is worth noting from the example of Athens County is that _______.
A) greater efforts should be made to improve people's living standards
B) 70 percent of the people there have been employed for two years
C) 50 percent of the population no longer relies on welfare
D) the living standards of most people are going down
59. From the passage we know that welfare reform aims at _______.
A) saving welfare funds
B) rebuilding the work ethic
C) providing more jobs
D) cutting government expenses
60. According to the passage, before the welfare reform was carried out, _______.
A) the poverty rate was lower
B) average living standards were higher
C) the average worker was paid higher wages
D) the poor used to rely on government aid
Passage Three
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage:
Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?
Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian (百姓的) Clothes. People have be come conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity(身份) than to step out of uniform?
Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible(可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.
Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least.
Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long-lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.

61. It is surprising that Americans who worship variety and individuality _______.
A) still judge a man by his clothes
B) hold the uniform in such high regard
C) enjoy having a professional identity
D) will respect an elevator operator as much as a general in uniform
62. People are accustomed to think that a man in uniform _______.
A) suggests quality work
B) discards his social identity
C) appears to be more practical
D) looks superior to a person in civilian clothes
63. The chief function of a uniform is to _______.
A) provide practical benefits to the wearer
B) make the wearer catch the public eye
C) inspire the wearer's confidence in himself
D) provide the wearer with a professional identity
64. According to the passage, people wearing uniforms _______.
A) are usually helpful
B) have little or no individual freedom
C) tend to lose their individuality
D) enjoy greater popularity
65. The best title for this passage would be _______.
A) Uniforms and Society
B) The Importance of Wearing a Uniform
C) Practical Benefits of Wearing a Uniform
D) Advantages and Disadvantages of Uniforms
Passage Four
Question 66 to 70 are based on the following passage:
Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships. One strength of the human condition is our tendency to give and receive support from one another under stressful circumstances. Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties.
Those of us with strong support systems appear betterable to cope with major life
changes and daily hassles(困难). People with strong social ties live longer and have better health than those withou such ties.Studies over a range of illnesses, from depression to heart disease, reveal that the presence of social support helps people fend off(挡开) illness, and the absence of such support makes poor health more likely.
Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. First, friends, relatives, and co-workers may let us know that they value us. Our self-respect is streng thened when we feel accepted by others despite our faults and difficulties. Second, other people often provide us with informational support. They help us to define and understand our problems and find solutions to them. Third, we typically find social companionship supportive. Engaging in leisure-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting(转移...注意力)us from our worries and troubles. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support ?a financial aid, material resources, and needed services -- that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems.

66. Interpersonal relationships are important because _______.
A) they are indispensable to people's social weel-being
B) they waken people's desire to exchange resources
C) they help people to cope with life in the information era
D) they can cure a range of illnesses such as heart disease, etc.
67. Research shows that people's physical and mental health _______.
A) relies on the social welfare systems which support them
B) has much to do with the amount of support they get from others
C) depends on their ability to deal with daily worries and troubles
D)is closely related to their strength for coping with major changes in their lives
68. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word"cushions"(Line 1, Para.2)?
A) Adds up to. B) Does away with.
C) Lessens the effect of. D) Lays the foundation for.
69. Helping a sick neighbor with some repair work is an example of _______.
A) instrumental support B) informational support
C) social companionship D) the strengthening of self-respect
70. Social companionship is beneficial in that _______.
A) it helps strengthen our ties with relatives
B) it enables us to eliminate our faults and mistakes
C) it makes our leisure-time activities more enjoyable
D) it draws our attention away from our worries and troubles


PartIV Translation (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, there are items, each consisting of one or two sentences for you to translate into Chinese. These sentences are all taken from the Reading Passates you have just read in Part Three of Test Paper One. You should refer back to the passaes so as to indentify their meaning in the context.

S1. (Lines 1-2, Para.1, Passage 1)
Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing
the disputed refereeing(裁判) decisions that denied victory to their team.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

S2. (Lines 1-2, Para.6, Passage 2)
But for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

S3. (Lines 5-6, Para.2, Passage 3)
What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity(身份) than to step out of uniform?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

S4. (Lines 3-4, para.1, Passage 4)
Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

Part V Writing (30 minutes)
Directions:For this part, you are alowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Is A Test of Spoken English Necessary? You should write at least 100 words, and base your compotition on the outline given in Chinese below:
1.很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是......
2.也有人持不同的意见,......
3.我的看法和打算

Is a Test of Spoken English Necssary?

A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English Test (CET).

2000年6月大学英语四级考试(听力材料)
Section A
1. M: Would you like a copy of profesor Smith's article?
W: Thanks, it it's not too much trouble.
Q: What does the woman imply?
2. W: Did you visit the Television Tower when you had your vacation in Shanghai last
summer?
M: I couldn't make it last June. But I finally visited it two months later. I plan
to visit it again sometime next year.
Q: What do we learn about the man?
3. M: Prof. Kennedy has been very busy this semester. As far as I know, he works until
midnight every day.
W: I would't have troubled him so much if I had known be was so busy.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
4. W: If I were you, I would have accepted the job.
M: I turned down the offer because it would mean frequent business trips away from
my family.
Q: Why didn't the man accept the job?
5. M: How are you getting on whith your eassay, Mary? I'm having a real hard time with
mine.
W: After two sleepless nights, I'm finally through with it.
Q: What do we learn from this conversation?
6. W: Where did you say you found this bag?
M: It was lying under a big tree between the park and the apartment building.
Q: Where did the man find the bag?
7. M: Wouldn't you get bored with the same routine year after year teaching the same
things to children?
W: I don't think it would be as boring as working in an office. Teaching is most
stimulating.
Q: What does the woman imply about office work?
8. M: I was terribly embarrassed when some of the audience got up and left in the
middle of the performance.
W: Well, some people just can't seem to appreciate real-life drama.
Q: What are they taling about?
9. W: Oh, it's so cold. We haven't had such a severe winter for so long, have we ?
M: Yes the forecast says it's going to get worse before it warms up.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
10. M: You were seen hanging about the store on the night when it was robbed, weren't
you?
W: Me? You must have made a mistake. I as at home that night.
Q: What are they taling about?
Section B
Passage One
There are three groups of English learners; beginners, intemediate leaners, and learners of special English. Beginners need to learn the basics of English. Students who have reached an intermediate level benefit from learning general En glish skills. But what about students who want to lean specialist English for th eir work or profess-
inal life? Most students, who fit into this third group have a clear idea about what they want to lean. A bank clerk, for example, wants to u se this specialist vocabulary and technical terms of finance. But for teachers, deciding how to teach specialist English is not always so easy. For a start, the variety is enormous. Every field from airline polots to secretaries has its own vocabulary and technical terms. Teachers also need to have an up-to-date knowle dge of the that specialist language, and not many teachers are exposed to workin g environments outside the classroom. These issues have influenced the way speci alist English is taught in schools. This type of course is usually known as Engl ish for Specific Purposes, or ESP and there isn't ESP courses for almsot every a rea of professional and working life. In Britain, for example, there are courses which teach English for doctors, lawyers, reporters, travel agents and people w orking in the hotel industry. By far, the most popular ESP courses are for busin ess English.
11. What is the characteristic of learners of special English?
12. Who needs ESP courses most?
13. What are the most popular ESP courses in Britain?
14. What is the speaker mainly taling about?
Passage Two
The first step to stop drug abuse is knowing why people start to use drugs. The reasons people abuse drugs are as different as people are from one to anothe r. but there seems to be one common thread: people seem to take drugs to changes the way they feel. They want to feel better or feel happy or to feel nothing. S ometimes, they want to forget or to remember. People often feel better about the mselves when they are under the influence of drugs. But the effects don't last l ong. Drugs don't solve problems. They just postpone them. No matter how far drug s may take you, it's always around trip. After a while, people who miss drugs ma y feel worse about themselves, and they they may use more drugs. If someone you know is using or abusing drugs, you can help. The most important part you can pl ay is to be there. You can let your friends know that you care. You can listen a nd try to solve the problem behind your friend's need to use drugs. Two people together can often solve a problem that seems too big for one person alone. Studies of heavy abusers in the United States show that they felt unloved and unwanted. They didn't have close friends to talk to. When you or your friends take the time to care for each other, you're all helping to stop drugs abuse. After all, what is a friend for?
15. Why do some people abuse drugs?
16. According to the passage, what is the best way to stop friends from abusing drugs?
17. What are the findings of the studies about heavy drug users?

Passage Three
Bows and arrows, are one of man's oldest weapons. They gave early man an eff ective weapon to kill his enemies. The ordinary bow or short bow as used by near ly all early people. This bow had limited power and short range. However, man ov ercame these faults by learning to track his targets at a close rane. The long h ow was most likely discovered when someone found out that a five-foot piece of w ood made a better bow than a three-food piece. Hundreds of thousands of these bo ws were made and used for three hundred years. However, not one is known to surv ive today. We believe that a force of about one hundred pounds was needed to pul l the string all the way back on a long bow. For a long time the bow was just a bent stick and string. In fact, more changes have taken plae in a bow in the past 25 years than in the last 7 centuries. Today, bow is forceful. It is as exact as a gun. In addition, it requires little strength to draw the string. Modern bo ws also have precise aiming devices. In indoor contest, perfect scores from 40 y ards are common. The invention of the bows itself ranks with discovery of fire a nd the wheel. It was a great-step-forward for man.
18. Why did man have no track his target at a close range when using a short bow ?
19. What does the passage tell us about long bow?
20. What do we know about modern bows?


2000年6月大学英语四级考试参考答案
Part I Listening Comprehension

1-10: CCBDB DACDD
11-20: DABCB AACBA

Part II Reading Comprehension
21. D 22. A 23. C 24. B 25. C
26. A 27. B 28. B 29. D 30. B
31. C 32. B 33. A 34. B 35. C
36. D 37. A 38. A 39. A 40. C
41. A 42. D 43. D 44. A 45. B
46. C 47. C 48. D 49. D 50. B

Part IV Reading Comprehension
51. A 52. C 53. A 54. C 55. B
56. D 57. C 58. A 59. B 60. D
61. B 62. A 63. D 64. C 65. D
66. A 67. B 68. C 69. A 70. D

Part IV Translation
S1. 1988年世界杯足球赛早已尘埃落定,但失望的球迷们仍在责骂那些颇有争议的判罚,声称正是那
些判罚使他们的球队没能获胜。
S2. 但是穷人们在没有政府救济的情况下,生活照样过得很好,对很多人来说,这一事实本身就是
一个巨大的胜利。
S3. 对于一名护士、理发师或是一侍者而言,还有什么比脱掉制服更加便利的方法能让他们失去职
业身份呢?
S4. 社会资助是由人与人之间的资源交换所构成的,而这种交换乃是建立在他们人际关系的基础之
上。

Part V Writing(略)


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